Xylariaceae is one of the most commonly encountered groups of ascomycetes with
most of its members being stromatic, peritheciate, with an iodine-positive
ascus apical ring, and with one-celled, dark ascospores on which a germination
slit can be found. Most are inhabitants of wood, seeds, fruits, or leaves of
angiosperms. Some are associated with insect nests. Most decay wood and many
are plant pathogens. Many are endophytes. They are commonly found throughout
the temperate and tropical regions of the world.
We have fully monographed or revised 14 genera of the Xylariaceae,
including: Ascovirgaria J. D.
Rogers & Y.-M. Ju, Biscogniauxia
Theiss., Daldinia Ces.
& De Not., Discoxylaria
Lindquist & J. Wright, Entoleuca
Syd., Hypoxylon Bull.,
Jumillera J. D.
Rogers, Y.-M. Ju, & San Martín, Kretzschmaria
Viégas, Nemania S. F. Gray,
Vivantia J. D. Rogers, Y.-M. Ju, & Cand.,
Whalleya J. D. Rogers, Y.-M. Ju, & San
Martín. Sample images of these genera are displayed on the right. Click a
link or an image and you will be able to access the background information of
that genus. For those genera harboring more than one species,
identification keys to species are also provided. These are synoptic
keys, which means that you can start from any character without following a
We compiled a LIST OF MOST
PUBLISHED EPITHETS for the above-listed genera. You can find out
the current status of a species or varietal name through the list which
contains more than 1,300 epithets.
If you suspect that the fungi that you are trying to identify or
read about are not among the above-listed genera, try our
KEY TO THE GENERA to see if they can be keyed out. This key is
also synoptic. We currently accept 40 genera in the Xylariaceae.
For those genera that we have not documented digitally, we provide sample
images and selected reference(s) for you to start with; you can find a list
summarizing characteristics for each of these genera as well. If you
would like to browse through a photo gallery of the 40 genera, click
THE ACCEPTED GENERA. Please excuse us for not having images for
a few genera. If you have images of these genera and would like to help
us out, please let us know.