It could be argued that the fungi discussed herein
are, in reality, reduced taxa of Xylaria Hill ex Schrank or species
of Rosellinia De Not. (see Laessøe, 1994; Laessøe & Spooner, 1994).
Our decision to accept Stilbohypoxylon as a genus is based on the prominent
synnemata within the bases of which perithecia are initiated. Remnants of synnemata
usually adhere to mature stromata in two species and, when broken, have been interpreted
as warts. All three species have scaly stromata, the scales conspicuously yellow in S. moelleri and S.
quisquiliarum. Material of the same color as the scales often covers the
surface of the substrate in the vicinity of stromata.
It is probable that additional taxa can eventually be accommodated in Stilbohypoxylon. It is likely, for example, that Hypoxylon cyclopicum Speg. -- a species with strongly verrucose stromata -- is, in fact, a Stilbohypoxylon (see Miller, 1961).