Hennings (1897) described Hypocreodendron
Henn. based upon H. sanguineum Henn. from material collected
in Argentina. His description and illustrations are of a robust, highly branched somewhat
coralloid stroma with ultimate branches terminating in discoid to subcupulate processes.
Rod-shaped conidia were illustrated and said to be produced in "conidiiferous
perithecia" immersed in the discoid processes. Although Hennings did not find asci he
surmised that the fungus is a member of the Hypocreales, apparently based on the fleshy
consistency of the stroma and blood-red color. He recognized a certain resemblance of the
fungus to Poronia Willd. and mentioned that, when moist, it produced a
sweetish smell reminiscent of Westphalen pumpernickel.
Höhnel (1910) apparently examined Hennings' material and noted immature perithecia below the conidial disc in the rind. He correctly noted that conidia are not borne in pycnidia. He moreover mentioned the great similarity of H. sanguineum to Corallomyces jatrophae A. Möller, but noted that the conidia of these fungi are of different shapes (Höhnel, 1910). Corallomyces is considered a synonym of Nectria Fr. by Rogerson (1970). It's synnematous anamorph is a Fusarium species.
Lindquist and Wright (1964) described Discoxylaria J. C. Lindq. & J. E. Wright on D. mirmecophila J. C. Lindq. & J. E. Wright [corrected to myrmecophila in Index of Fungi, 1965]. They believed this perithecium-bearing fungus to be the ascigerous state of Hypocreodendron and, moreover, argued that Poroniopsis Speg. is a synonym of Hypocreodendron. Lindquist and Wright (1964) considered Hypocreodendron to be a coelomycete, with reservations. The teleomorph was described in detail. Ascospores were described as lacking a longitudinal germ slit, but possessing a conspicuous germ pore (Lindquist and Wright, 1964). Presumably on the basis of the association with ant nests and the small ascospores apparently devoid of germ slits they considered Discoxylaria to be close to Pseudoxylaria Boedijn and included it in family Sarcostromellaceae Boedijn (Lindquist and Wright, 1964).
Pérez-Silva (1974) described the association of Discoxylaria with ant (Atta) nests and raised the possibility that the fungus is disseminated by ants. Her materialat least the portion deposited in Kis immature, i.e. only the Hypocreodendron state is present.